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Why did docker lose to kubernetes? Docker employee readme!

Docker Today's volume is too small compared with the original potential vision , This article will show you about Docker“ It ended up like this ” The reasons and the details of the truth .

One 、 Preface

Docker Still alive . Although its situation in recent two or three years is not ideal , But it's still struggling , Trying to find your business value . Just last week ,Docker Announce changes Docker License terms of the software . In the near future , Working for a large enterprise Docker Desktop Professional users need to pay a subscription to continue to use .

meanwhile ,Docker It also launched a new subscription program for enterprises , namely Docker Business. The new clause applies to 8 month 31 Take effect , but Docker It is given as of 2022 year 1 month 31 A grace period of days , So that developers can comply with the new service agreement and buy paid subscriptions when necessary .

It is as expected ,Docker The move has sparked discussion among developers . Although many people understand Docker Considerations behind new subscriptions , But also expressed their dissatisfaction . Criticism falls into two main categories , Some people think that Docker The decision created a potential “ dangerous ” Precedent , It may increase subscription costs in the future . however , Others said , This view does not take into account that if the team has to rely on “ Poor maintenance ” Open source software , There will be higher costs .

On the other hand , People are most worried about the difficulty of the internal procurement process , This may “ persuade sb. to resign from an official position ” Developers continue to use Docker, spontaneously , Many people began to explore alternatives , Include Minikube、Canonical Of MicroK8s etc. .

As for developers and enterprises, will they feel Docker Desktop The alternative is more convenient , Or choose to pay a small fee for the subscription plan to keep the existing workflow unchanged , Remains to be seen .

Docker There is nothing wrong with your business attempt , But what's more regrettable is ,Docker Never succeeded in transforming technological innovation into a sustainable business model , And forced to 2019 year 11 The company sold its business to Mirantis.

today , A popular open source choreography tool Kubernetes Has replaced Docker The profit core designed for yourself Swarm Enterprise container orchestration tool . therefore ,Docker The profits from years of painstaking operation are still “ Made soup ”, After that, I can only struggle half dead to survive . however , The real story is much more complicated than this . In recent days, , Foreign media InfoWorld Interviewed several former and current Docker staff 、 Open source contributor 、 Customers and industry analysts , Trying to find the truth from this broken story .

Two 、“ Everything can only be tasted ”

Heavily dependent on huge venture capital 、 The competition pattern is constantly changing, and the major cloud giants want a share ,Docker The pressure faced by this young enterprise is actually far more than most people think .

Docker from 2014 Around, we began to seriously consider transforming our leading position in the container market into a realizable business strategy .2014 Year and 2015 year , The company acquired... With part of its venture capital Koality And Tutum, It also introduces Docker The first iteration of the enterprise support plan .

These investments later gave birth to Docker Hub Products such as —— You can understand it as Docker mirrored GitHub( There are still )—— Finally achieved Docker Enterprise. But these products have not been really recognized by enterprise customers , They are usually happy to work with more mature partners , Or build solutions independently rather than directly purchase solutions . therefore Docker We can only continue to work hard to develop the product portfolio that customers really want .

Docker founder Solomon Hykes( On 2018 year 3 It was announced from Docker quit ) Point out in an interview that ,“ We have been unable to produce excellent commercial products , The reason is that we can't concentrate . We can only taste everything . It's hard enough to maintain the growth of the developer community and build a great commercial product , At that time, we needed to develop three or four models at the same time . unfortunately , We have invested a lot of energy and money in this regard , But I couldn't reach the end on any road .”

Afterwards ,Hykes Think Docker There should be no rush to develop products , And it's better to listen more to customers .Hykes Exclaim ,“ I didn't have to rush to expand the scale of commercial products , Instead, more money should be spent to collect insights from the community , And build a team to understand the needs 、 A team capable of solving needs . We are 2014 There was a turning point in , But we feel we can't wait , So I made a decision in my eagerness . Actually, it's not that urgent .”

Some people think that Docker Early release of good things for free . At the beginning of the year , Google's Kelsey Hightower He said in an interview ,“ So they launched their most powerful trump card for free . They have solved the problem , And it is a comprehensive solution : Design mirror 、 Build a mirror image 、 Storage Mirroring 、 Running the mirror . What's left after that ? There is no space .”

Hykes I don't agree with this view .“ I don't think that's right . In general , Core open source products must first create huge growth , Then we can find feasible commercialization opportunities . Many enterprises have successfully realized Docker The commercialization of the , It's just Docker I don't have .Docker Many things in can be successfully commercialized , It's just Docker I didn't make it .”

for example ,Red Hat And Pivotal( Now it belongs to VMware) All are Docker Our early partners . They will Docker Container integration into your own business PaaS product ( Namely OpenSHift And Cloud Foundry) among , And contributed to open source projects .

Now remember ,Hykes And I think he's confused “ Communities and ecosystems ” These two concepts .Red Hat The fundamental “ Not part of the community , They never really care Docker Can we succeed or not . We mistakenly hope to make Red Hat Be part of the community . remember , Such a partnership can never give Docker Bring benefits .”

therefore , Tourism Technology Enterprises Amadeus Wait for early customers from 2015 Since, it has turned to Red Hat, To fill Docker Left enterprise application blank . Its cloud platform leader Edouard Hubin Express ,“ We are directly transforming from pioneer users to Red Hat Our main partners . We use... In this mode Docker Open source version , And by the Red Hat Provide us with container technical support . Containerization is the first step in a major technological change that subverts virtualization , What has really changed the rules of the enterprise game is the container choreography solution . Obviously ,Docker Failed to suppress Kubernetes, Eventually forced into an extremely difficult situation .”

Docker Before the company CEO(2013 - 2017 year )Ben Golub said ,“ As the saying goes 「 The fairy to fight 、 Mortals suffer 」. We all know , The center of this storm is not Docker, It's a fierce fight between major cloud service providers . They all want to put Docker Pull in your direction , Choosing to be true to our original values and business foundation is like dancing on a steel wire .”

The predecessor CEO Pointed out that , With Docker Continuous development , All these factors naturally create a kind of “ nervous ” The atmosphere of .Golub Recollection ,“ We want to build a great community and profit from developer products , At the same time, we also hope to create an excellent operator product , Help customers build and deploy containers on a large scale . Although the vision is here , But we soon realized that we had to scale up quickly , And I can't take much time to balance the two routes of community development and commercial enterprise transformation …… As a startup , We make hundreds of decisions in a hurry every day , Then I pray that I can make fewer mistakes .”

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3、 ... and 、 And Kubernetes Talk about cooperation : Conceit and arrogance

Throughout the development process ,Docker Made a lot of decisions that he regretted , But one of the most serious is when the number refuses to accept Kubernetes As the preferred emerging container orchestration tool . Facing this new friend ,Docker Put on a hostile posture 、 Push ahead with one's own way Docker Swarm Layout tools .

in fact ,Docker The company in 2014 I had the opportunity to work with Google Kubernetes Work closely with the team , And control the whole container ecosystem in the process .

Docker The first group of employees 、 It is also the one with the longest service time Jérôme Petazzoni Express ,“ Our biggest mistake is to miss Kubernetes. At that time, we were in a state of collective mentality expansion , We think Kubernetes It's too complicated ,Swarm Be sure to succeed . This misjudgment finally led us to collective failure .”

According to many witnesses , The intense discussions between the two sides in Google's San Francisco office contained many technical details , Both sides also have clear and strong opinions on the specific implementation methods of container choreography .

Kubernetes cofounder 、 The current VMware Vice president of the company Craig McLuckie Express , He once proposed that Kubernetes Donate to Docker, But the two sides failed to reach an agreement . He mentioned in the interview that ,“ Both sides do look down on each other . We from Docker I don't feel any development experience there , It seems that these young upstarts don't understand the Management Secrets of distributed systems at all .” Other people present also mentioned that the discussion atmosphere was not formal , The main demand at that time was to find the possibility of joint development . But anyway , The teams on both sides failed to reach any consensus , So they finally parted ways . Google is in 2014 Launched in the summer of Kubernetes.

Hykes It is also acknowledged that , at that time Docker The relationship with the Google team is very tense .“ For a moment , Our conceit has the upper hand . Google has a lot of smart and experienced people , but Docker The outsider was dazzled by the victory . We haven't worked at Google 、 I never went to Stanford 、 And no PhD in Computer Science . Some people don't want each other to meddle , So it became a battle of self 、「 anti-intellectual 」 The battle of . Final ,Docker And Kubernetes Meaningful cooperation between teams is dead .”

Docker The earliest employees of the company 、 Former vice president of business development and technology alliance Nick Stinemates Express ,“ We could have let Kubernetes Become GitHub Above the head Docker The first-class name Docker project . In hindsight ,Swarm It's too late , Eventually led to irreparable failure .”

“ On the one hand, we are too conceited , The other is Kubernetes Several co founders Joe Beda、Brendan Burns as well as Craig McLuckie A sharp attitude —— They are concerned about service levels API Our needs are uncompromising , but Docker Technically, it doesn't pay much attention to a single API. So we can't reach an agreement at all .”Stinemates Say .

in any case ,Kubernetes Finally won the battle of container choreography .

but Craig McLuckie Also emphasized , He “ I do not know! Kubernetes Will develop to this extent . Post hoc analysis is too easy , But people can't see so clearly in the game .”

Four 、 Cracks in the high-rise

stay 2015 In the past years 10 $ “ The unicorn ” Valuation completed 9500 A huge sum of $million D After round financing ,Docker Finally reached the peak of the hype cycle .

Stinemates Express ,“ This round of financing is for Docker Set high development expectations , It also exposed a series of fundamental problems that our enterprise is about to face . I think I was in the company CEO Of Ben Golub There are many ideas with Hykes Different , And everyone knows that the two people have differences of opinion . The board is heavily involved 、 Trying to calm the founders , It also gives CEO Enough leeway , Hope to drive the company to success . If by Hykes decision , Then he will adhere to the community-oriented route to create viral transmission . And in the Ben It seems , The earlier you turn to business operations, the more you can take the initiative . This tension , As a result, we couldn't go to the end on both roads .”

This situation eventually gave birth to two Docker: For developers 、 Popular command line tools and open source projects Docker Community Edition , And a business tool suite for enterprise customers who want to adopt containers on a large scale Docker Enterprise Edition . Unfortunately , The company's action is too slow , There is no way to clearly separate the two and provide development resources separately .

To 2018 year , Cracks begin to appear .Docker The company is gradually unable to compete with the increasingly dissatisfied open source community and strong partners , Find a viable route with demanding enterprise customers who require containers to run in a production environment .

Not long after 2018 year 3 month ,Hykes Left the company he founded . He wrote in a blog post ,“ As founder , Of course I have complex emotions . Any entrepreneur wants his company to succeed when he leaves . My day has finally come , I didn't expect it to be in such a bittersweet way . For the founders , It's really a torment to give up the dream you pursue all your life .”

Now look back ,Hykes It's beyond .“ I realized that I didn't belong to this company , There is no constructive contribution to staying , So I left …… I've lost the fun of starting a business , So either stay and be CEO、 Or it's better to say goodbye directly .”

Facing the increasingly serious financial problem ,Docker The company rotated new CEO——Ben Golub On 2017 year 5 The month gives way to SAP CEO Steve Singh;2019 year 6 month , front Hortonworks CEO Rob Bearden Again from Singh Take power in your hands .

5、 ... and 、 Now? Docker What is the orientation of

In the initial investor Insight Venture Partners And Benchmark Capital 3500 Supported by $million in cash , Now Docker Of “ Crippled body ” In the past seven years, senior people Scott Johnston Under the leadership of , from Docker Engine Container runtime 、Docker Hub Image library and Docker Desktop The software is struggling .

Johnston He said in an interview , I'm trying to “ Focus on the actual needs of developers like a laser ”, Hope to help Docker The company returns to its roots .“ We think Docker The company is stronger than ever , With three cores : Customer focus 、 Unified listing planning and more ecosystem friendly business model .”

Johnston Determined not to repeat the mistakes of the past , Focus on providing value to the core software developer audience in the enterprise .

Johnston Think ,“Docker 2.0” Our growth opportunity is for security 、 Proven images provide new developer tools and trusted content , At the same time, it is a new computing model based on container technology ( For example, no server 、 Machine learning and IOT workloads ) Continue to provide impetus .

what's more ,Docker Still the industry standard container runtime , at present Docker Desktop Have 300 A considerable installed capacity of million . Besides , stay Stack Overflow Of 《2021 The developer survey 》 In the report ,49% Of respondents said they often use Docker Desktop Tools .

For all that , People are right. Docker The future of is still not very promising .Stinemates Say frankly ,“ To be frank , I will question today's Docker Does it really exist . From a professional point of view , It's really sad . I've never met anyone like Docker That's exciting 、 An enterprise full of vitality and always creating sparks .”

Hykes It concludes that ,“ To be fair ,Docker Failed to translate their business potential into real value …… At least not yet . But I'm happy Docker After so many years of ups and downs, I seized the opportunity to establish business again . This proves Docker The brand and foundation of the project are very solid .”

Compile nuclear coke 、 Yan Shan
The official account number :InfoQ(ID:infoqchina)
original text :https://www.infoworld.com/article/3632142/how-docker-broke-in-half.html

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