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The earliest computer was an abacus? This computer museum shows you the history of 2000

Computer age
Computer (computer) Commonly known as computer , It's an electronic computing machine for high-speed computing , Can be done Numerical calculation , We can do it again Logical computing , Also has the Memory function .
feng . Von Neumann computer Decide the composition of the computer : Input 、 Output 、 Memory 、 Calculators and controllers , And to put forward “ Binary system ” and “ Program storage ” The concept of .

 
Some people say that computers are produced by the need of war , We believe that the fundamental power of computers is to create more material wealth , It's to extend the human brain , Let people's potential get greater development .
Just as the invention of the car is to make people's legs extend , The invention of computer is in fact the inheritance and extension of human brain intelligence . near 10 Over the years , The application of computers is increasingly penetrating into all fields of society , Such as management 、 Office automation, etc .
As computers are becoming more and more intelligent , So later people simply called the microcomputer “ The computer ”.

 
The power of computer comes from people's desire to invent a machine that can carry out scientific calculation . As soon as it was born , It immediately became the representative of advanced productive forces , A new scientific and technological revolution has been launched since the industrial revolution .
To trace the invention of the computer , We can start from ancient China , In ancient times, people invented abacus to process some data , Using the method of playing with the calculation beads , People don't have to do mental arithmetic , The answer can be worked out through a fixed formula . This is called “ Calculation and logical operation ” After the concept of operation was introduced into the West , To be carried forward by the Americans . Until the 16th century , Invented a machine that can help to deal with more complex mathematical expressions such as multipliers , go by the name of “ Chessboard calculator ”, But this period belongs to the stage of pure calculation , It wasn't until the 19th century that rapid development .
Since the first electronic computer came into being , Computer science and technology have developed rapidly . The development of computers has gone through four generations :
The first generation was the era of electronic tube and computer
1946—1958 year , The computer structure is based on CPU Centered , Using machine language , Slow speed 、 Small storage , It is mainly used in numerical calculation .
The main logic components of this generation of computers are tubes , The memory uses magnetic core and drum , Software mainly uses machine language . in the meantime , Formed the electron tube computer system , The basic method of programming is determined , Data processor ( A computer designed for data processing ) It's starting to get applied . The computing speed of a computer is usually thousands to tens of thousands of times per second , It's huge , Cost is very high . Although its volume 、 Speed 、 Software and other aspects can not be compared with today's microcomputers , But it laid the foundation for the development of computer science and Technology . This generation of computers is mainly used in scientific computing .
The second generation is the era of transistor computer
1958—1965 year , A computer is structurally centered on memory , The use of high-level language applications to expand to data processing and industrial control .
The main logic elements of this generation of computers are transistors , The main memory still uses magnetic cores , External storage has started to use disks , Software also has great development , There are all kinds of high-level languages . in the meantime , The reliability and speed of the computer have been improved . The speed is generally tens of thousands to hundreds of thousands of times per second , Reduce in size , Cost reduction . Industrial control computer ( Refers to a computer specially used for industrial production process control ) It's starting to show up and get applications . In addition to scientific computing, this generation of computers , It's also applied to all kinds of data processing 、 Industrial control and other fields .
The third generation is the computer age of small and medium scale integrated circuits
1965—1971 year , The computer structure is still memory centric , But a variety of external devices have been added , Software has developed to some extent , The computer processes images 、 Text and data functions have been enhanced .
The main logic components of this generation of computers are small and medium scale integrated circuits . in the meantime , The reliability and speed of computers have been further improved , The speed is usually hundreds of thousands to millions of times per second , The volume is further reduced , The cost is further reduced . minicomputer ( Small scale , Simple structure , A computer that is easy to operate ) It began to appear and developed rapidly , operating system 、 Software such as conversational high-level language is developing rapidly . Variety of models , Production serialization , Building blocks of structure , Use systematization , It is the main characteristic of computer development at this stage .
The fourth generation is the era of large scale integrated circuit computer
1971 So far this year , Computers are more widely used , There were even microcomputers .
This generation of computers uses LSI LSI(large scale integrator), Integration on a single silicon wafer 1000~2000 A transistor ) Or VLSI VLSI(very large scale integrator, Integration on a single silicon wafer 6 ten thousand ~10 Ten thousand transistors ). because LSI, VLSI Small size , Less power consumption , High reliability , So the computer at this stage is smaller , More reliable and faster , A lower cost . The speed of the computer can reach tens of millions of operations per second . meanwhile , Microcomputers with complete circuits on only one silicon chip have begun to appear , One after another, the widely used single board computers have appeared 、 Single chip microcomputer and various types of personal computers . meanwhile , Supercomputers for scientific computing and cutting-edge technology, characterized by parallel processing, have also been developed , A computer network composed of several computers has also been put into practical use .
The fifth generation of artificial intelligence computer era
This generation of computers is collecting information 、 Storage 、 Handle 、 An intelligent computer system that combines communication with artificial intelligence . It can be used for numerical calculation or general information processing , It is mainly oriented to knowledge processing , Reasoning with formalization 、 lenovo 、 The ability to learn and explain , Can help people make judgments 、 Decision making 、 Explore the unknown and gain new knowledge . It can simulate human intelligence , For example, recognize the figure 、 Language 、 Objects, etc . It will have an immeasurable impact on the development of society .
The development of electronic computers is shown in table 1.1.

 
Computer history museum
Founded on 1996 year , In Silicon Valley , It's a non-profit organization , Got a lot of giants 、 The support of the pioneers . Many original machines and models unique in the history of computers converge here , Build a unique world . according to an uncompleted statistic , The museum has more than 3500 Multiple pieces “ Prehistoric antiques ”( Of course, for computer history ),3000 Multiple rolls of film and video ,5000 Multiple photos and 3,500 The rest of the catalogue .

 

 
Calculator It's the earliest computing tool , When computers were not made . Early calculators were purely manual , Like an abacus 、 Calculation, etc . Abacus is usually made of sliding beads . In the West , Abacus was used for centuries before the popularity of Arabic numerals in India , And it is still widely used in accounting and business in modern China . Then came the mechanical calculator .

 
17 At the beginning of the century , Western countries have made great progress in computing tools , The English mathematician Napier invented " Napier's calculations ".

 
1623 year , Calculators from Holland .

 
Cylindrical logarithmic rule It was invented by the English priest ochaud , This slide rule can not only do addition, subtraction, multiplication and division 、 chengfang 、 Square root operation , You can even compute trigonometric functions , Exponential and logarithmic functions , These computing tools not only led to the development of calculators , It also laid a good foundation for the development of modern calculators , It has become a widely used computing tool in modern society .

 
Punch card It was an early device for computers to input information , You can usually store 80 Column data . It's a very thin piece of paper , Area is 190×84 mm . American harrellis uses cards to punch , A card tabulation system is developed , This system is considered to be the rudiment of modern computer .1911 year , Harrellis sold the patent to another company ,13 The company changed its name to international business machines Inc , That's what we have now IBM.

 
Analog computer It's using electricity 、 A computer that directly calculates physical quantities such as voltage . The main purpose of using analog computers is , It's not about getting exact solutions to mathematical problems , It is to give an electronic model for experimental study .

 
The first large automatic digital computer Mark 20 In the 1940s , Howard · Aiken (Howard Hathaway Aiken) The first large-scale automatic digital computer in the world has been successfully developed Mark ,IBM The company named it ASCC namely Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator.

 
Early computer companies ,IBM 1401 Demonstration lab IBM Of 1401 Data processing transformed by a data processing system , And become one of the most popular computers of all time . Back in travel time 1959 year , Experience the scene and sound of business computer center . This exhibition will be recreated from the last century 60 years , Including work keypunches, The printer , Card reader , Sorters and tape drives work on medium-sized computers .

 

 
** Real time computing (Real-time computing)** Also known as real-time computing , In computer science, it's about receiving “ Immediate constraints ” The research of computer hardware and software system , Immediate constraints are like the maximum time limit between the occurrence of an event and the response of the system . Instant programs must be able to respond within strict time limits . Usually the instant response time will be in milliseconds , Sometimes in microseconds . by comparison , A non instant system is one that cannot be guaranteed under any conditions , A system whose response time meets the real-time constraints .

 

 
The mainframe ENIAC stay 20 century 40 years , Because of the World War II at that time, there was an urgent need for high-speed and accurate computing tools , To solve the problem of ballistic calculation , Under the aegis of the U.S. Army , Mokley of Moore college, University of Pennsylvania, USA 、 Eckert et al 1945 The world's first electronic computer was designed and manufactured at the end of ENIAC, And used by the U.S. military .

 
Memory and storage

 
Software theater

 
Supercomputers ENIAC( Chinese name : Ernie Ake ) The calculator uses 17840 A tube , The size is 80 feet ×8 feet , weighing 28t( Tons of ), The power consumption is 170kW, Its speed is per second 5000 The addition of times , Cost is about 487000 dollar .ENIAC The advent of the new era is of epoch-making significance , It shows the coming of the age of electronic computer .

 

 

 
Microcomputer 50 Late S , With the maturity of transistor technology , Various computer manufacturing companies began to eliminate electronic tubes , Mass production of various types of transistor computers , The second generation of electronic computers .

 
Digital logic 1964 year ,IBM The company has successfully developed a large integrated circuit general-purpose computer IBM360, The third generation of integrated circuit computer has been opened ,IBM360 The serialization of computers 、 Universality and standardization have greatly affected the development of computer industry all over the world , It has become an important milestone in the history of computer industry .

 
Artificial intelligence and robots With the development of computer, the most popular artificial intelligence and robot in recent years .1910 year Karel, czechoslovak writer · Chapec in his science fiction , according to Robota( Czech , The original meaning is “ labour 、 Drudgery ”) and Robotnik( Polish , The original meaning is “ Worker ”), To create a “ robot ” The word . There are so many robots here ,LEO You will not introduce them one by one .

 

 
Electronic animation 、 music 、 art The blockbuster we saw in the cinema 《 Jurassic Park 》、《 Titanic 》 And so on , And many animations have benefited from the development of computers !

 
Storage and reading On a large scale 、 The development of very large scale semiconductor integrated circuits , The speed of the electronic computer is constantly improved , The volume keeps shrinking 、 Prices are falling year by year . With the further maturity of computer hardware technology , Faster and faster 、 Computers with better and better versatility are widely used in various industries .

 
Electronic games To the most exciting video game area ! ad locum , Let's look back at the games we played together in those years , See the little overlord learning machine , Can't help but recall childhood full of memories !

 

 
 
Personal computers For millions of video game players , Personal computers are now, first and foremost, a platform for connecting them to the virtual world . The world is full of opponents and allies from all over the world .

 
Mobile computer Mobile computing is developing with mobile communication 、 Internet 、 database 、 With the development of distributed computing and other technologies, new technologies are emerging . Mobile computing technology will enable computers or other information intelligent terminal devices to realize data transmission and resource sharing in wireless environment . Its function is to be useful 、 accuracy 、 Timely information is available at any time 、 Any customer anywhere . This will greatly change the way people live and work . Under this technology, the indispensable mobile phone in our life was born .

 
2007 First generation of the year iPhone The market

 
Cloud computing It's an increase in Internet-based services 、 Usage and delivery patterns , It usually involves providing dynamic, scalable and often virtualized resources through the Internet , Is the 1980 Era mainframe to client - Another big change after the big change of the server .

 
Distributed computing (Distributed Computing)、 Parallel computing (Parallel Computing)、 Utility calculation (Utility Computing)、 Network storage (Network Storage Technologies)、 virtualization (Virtualization)、 Load balancing (Load Balance)、 Hot backup redundancy (High Available) Such as the traditional computer and network technology development and fusion, the emergence of Cloud Computing .

 
2006 year 8 month 9 Japan ,Google Eric, CEO · schmidt (Eric Schmidt) At the search engine Conference (SES San Jose 2006) First put forward “ Cloud computing ” The concept of , and Google“ Cloud Computing ” From the Google Christopher the Engineer · What bihilia did “Google 101” project .

 
What's Next? The Museum of computer history shows us half a century's history of computer innovation . We can't help but sigh that the history of the computer field can be so spectacular 、 beautiful . So with the continuous progress and development of computer technology , What are we waiting for next ?

 
author : Lao Ye loves learning link :https://juejin.cn/post/6844903534161313805 source : Nuggets The copyright belongs to the author . Commercial reprint please contact the author for authorization , Non-commercial reprint please indicate the source .
 
 

Computers become 2020 College students choose the top three , The more people choose , The more competitive the students are . However The school education lacks the part of engineer training . It's only responsible for teaching , Not responsible for the training of engineers , That's the central reason for the problem .

 

that , How can computer students learn a language at the same time , I also have some practical experience , Or see the project development practice problem when you have confidence ?

Here is a learning base for you , Help you on your way to study , Make learning fall into practice , No longer the boring book knowledge , Make the learning process more vivid and interesting ~

 

 

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